Thursday, February 16, 2012


Diarrhea is more common in children. It usually will heal by itself without causing other complications.
What is diarrhea?
Diarrhea is a condition where stools become loose channels and watery stools.Stool will come out more often than usual.
  • Acute diarrhea - occurs suddenly and lasts for less than two weeks
  • Severe diarrhea (chronic) - continued until more than two weeks.
What causes diarrhea?
Diarrhea is usually caused by infection of the intestines caused by contaminated food or water. It also can be caused not because of infection but this is very rare.
Causes of infection:
Transmision usually occurs from individual to individual
  • Bacteria
  • examples.; Shigella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli
  • Virus
  • example, Norwalk virus, Rotavirus
  • Parasite
  • eg. lambdia Giardia, Entamoeba histolytica
Not the causes of infection
  • Tolerance to food - no tolerance terhadaplaktosa
  • Drug reactions
  • specific antibiotic
  • Intestine-related diseases - inflammatory bowel disease, a disease which can not digest fat.
  • Functional bowel disease (functional bowel disease) - irritable bowel syndrome (inflammatory bowel syndrome)
What are the signs and symptoms of diarrhea?
  • Stomach twisting feeling more often
  • Diarrhea
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Fever
  • Loss of appetite
  • Abdominal pain / cramps
  • Bloating of the stomach
A child may appear normal or may have signs of dehydration.
How to recognize dehydration?
Mild and moderate dehydration
  • Dry mouth and tongue
  • Chapped lips
  • No or only little tears when crying
  • Restless
  • No urine until 4-6 hours
  • Crests of the baby's head sunk
Severe dehydration (chronic)
All the signs above and follow the following signs:
  • Dry skin and wrinkles
  • The children looked frail, very tired and inactive
  • Refusing to eat
  • Sunken eyes
  • Shortness of breath
  • Weak and rapid pulse
  • Hands and feet feel very cold
What danger signs should be aware of?
Seek treatment quickly if your child has these symptoms:
  • Signs of dehydration
  • Blood in stools or black colored stools
  • Diarrhea continued until more than 48 hours
  • Weight loss
  • Drowsy and appeared immune
  • Fever> 38 degrees Celsius
  • Refusing to eat
Effects of severe complications of diarrhea?
  • Organ does not function, including renal failure
  • Sistemic infection (systemic infection)
  • No tolerance to lactose secondary level (Secondary lactase intolerance)
  • Pain around the anal area
How to manage children who have diarrhea?
It is important to replace the lost water in the body.
Continue breast feeding as well as providing drinking water rehydration salts (ORS)
The baby is not breastfed - continue to give the baby to eat normal food and drink rehydration salt ORS (oral rehydration salt) oral rehydration salts
Total liquid ORS (oral rehydration salts) to be given: (Use a small spoon or syringe)
Age infants under 6 months
  • 30 to 90mls per hour
Age 6 months to 1 year
  • 90 to 120mls per hour
Age of 1 year
  • 120 to 240 mls per hour
Recovery phase
  • When the child's condition improved to continue to give ORS solution and breast milk. Slowly add the amount to restore the child's appetite.
  • Common foods can be started after 24 to 48 hours if the child had begun to recover.
  • Unclean conditions will return to normal after 7 days undergo diarrhea.
  • Avoid change of formula indiscriminately
  • Consult your doctor if you notice that you give formula milk is not suitable for your child.
Medicine to stop diarrhea, should be avoided because:
  • Not safe for infants and children
  • Resilience against infection will be interrupted
  • Generally not necessary, seek medical advice
Creams during
  • Cream such as petroleum jelly and zinc oxide can help relieve the pain a sick baby's bottom.
Treatment for chronic diarrhea
  • Investigation and detailed assessment should be done before deciding on specific treatment for cases of severe diarrhea
How can diarrhea be prevented from children?
  • Drink boiled water
  • Avoid raw food unless prepared hygienically by yourself.
  • Wash hands thoroughly after preparing food, going to the toilet, changing diapers and before handling food.
  • Dispose of diapers properly

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