Thursday, February 16, 2012


Diarrhea is more common in children. It usually will heal by itself without causing other complications.
What is diarrhea?
Diarrhea is a condition where stools become loose channels and watery stools.Stool will come out more often than usual.
  • Acute diarrhea - occurs suddenly and lasts for less than two weeks
  • Severe diarrhea (chronic) - continued until more than two weeks.
What causes diarrhea?
Diarrhea is usually caused by infection of the intestines caused by contaminated food or water. It also can be caused not because of infection but this is very rare.
Causes of infection:
Transmision usually occurs from individual to individual
  • Bacteria
  • examples.; Shigella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli
  • Virus
  • example, Norwalk virus, Rotavirus
  • Parasite
  • eg. lambdia Giardia, Entamoeba histolytica
Not the causes of infection
  • Tolerance to food - no tolerance terhadaplaktosa
  • Drug reactions
  • specific antibiotic
  • Intestine-related diseases - inflammatory bowel disease, a disease which can not digest fat.
  • Functional bowel disease (functional bowel disease) - irritable bowel syndrome (inflammatory bowel syndrome)
What are the signs and symptoms of diarrhea?
  • Stomach twisting feeling more often
  • Diarrhea
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Fever
  • Loss of appetite
  • Abdominal pain / cramps
  • Bloating of the stomach
A child may appear normal or may have signs of dehydration.
How to recognize dehydration?
Mild and moderate dehydration
  • Dry mouth and tongue
  • Chapped lips
  • No or only little tears when crying
  • Restless
  • No urine until 4-6 hours
  • Crests of the baby's head sunk
Severe dehydration (chronic)
All the signs above and follow the following signs:
  • Dry skin and wrinkles
  • The children looked frail, very tired and inactive
  • Refusing to eat
  • Sunken eyes
  • Shortness of breath
  • Weak and rapid pulse
  • Hands and feet feel very cold
What danger signs should be aware of?
Seek treatment quickly if your child has these symptoms:
  • Signs of dehydration
  • Blood in stools or black colored stools
  • Diarrhea continued until more than 48 hours
  • Weight loss
  • Drowsy and appeared immune
  • Fever> 38 degrees Celsius
  • Refusing to eat
Effects of severe complications of diarrhea?
  • Organ does not function, including renal failure
  • Sistemic infection (systemic infection)
  • No tolerance to lactose secondary level (Secondary lactase intolerance)
  • Pain around the anal area
How to manage children who have diarrhea?
It is important to replace the lost water in the body.
Continue breast feeding as well as providing drinking water rehydration salts (ORS)
The baby is not breastfed - continue to give the baby to eat normal food and drink rehydration salt ORS (oral rehydration salt) oral rehydration salts
Total liquid ORS (oral rehydration salts) to be given: (Use a small spoon or syringe)
Age infants under 6 months
  • 30 to 90mls per hour
Age 6 months to 1 year
  • 90 to 120mls per hour
Age of 1 year
  • 120 to 240 mls per hour
Recovery phase
  • When the child's condition improved to continue to give ORS solution and breast milk. Slowly add the amount to restore the child's appetite.
  • Common foods can be started after 24 to 48 hours if the child had begun to recover.
  • Unclean conditions will return to normal after 7 days undergo diarrhea.
  • Avoid change of formula indiscriminately
  • Consult your doctor if you notice that you give formula milk is not suitable for your child.
Medicine to stop diarrhea, should be avoided because:
  • Not safe for infants and children
  • Resilience against infection will be interrupted
  • Generally not necessary, seek medical advice
Creams during
  • Cream such as petroleum jelly and zinc oxide can help relieve the pain a sick baby's bottom.
Treatment for chronic diarrhea
  • Investigation and detailed assessment should be done before deciding on specific treatment for cases of severe diarrhea
How can diarrhea be prevented from children?
  • Drink boiled water
  • Avoid raw food unless prepared hygienically by yourself.
  • Wash hands thoroughly after preparing food, going to the toilet, changing diapers and before handling food.
  • Dispose of diapers properly

Effect of Panadol (paracetamol) to Kids

To parents, please take note of this. Paracetamol is a drug that can be purchased over the counter medication without a prescription from a doctor. Therefore, there are some parents who often give their children this Panadol pain during regularly.

Panadol problem is, these drugs produce active radicals that can damage the liver (liver). In a healthy adult individuals, the liver has an enormous capacity of the removal of this radical via the bile (through the mechanism of conjugation with glucorinide). However, the child has less ability to get rid of this radical accumulation in the liver. Children who are affected are under the age of 2 years for the construction of the heart is still in the process of elimination in the liver.

Should radical material was gathered in large quantities, it can cause serious liver damage and eventually cause liver can not function. liver can not work to bring harm to the child that can lead to death (in acute cases).

Recommended that parents give their children Panadol in small doses (half boiled) or panadol children (Panadol for children) to reduce the heat and headache in children. Panadol is still used in children because the alternative (aspirin) in no way can be used to children. Prohibited aspirin to children because it can cause bleeding in the brain (brain hemorrhage) because the blood vessels children are soft and easily damaged by blood gas (diluted by aspirin blood clotting factor when inhibited thromboxane A2).

Although panadol are available at all stores, parents should be concerned with ask your doctor so that appropriate dose can be given to children to ensure that problems, liver damage can be avoided.


Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical that is added in polycarbonate baby bottles to make it hard and transparent. While Polycarbonate is a type of plastic used in the manufacture of consumer products. 

BPA is used by the chemical industry in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic that aims to produce baby bottles, food and beverage containers and in the manufacture of epoxy resin is used as internal coatings for food and beverage cans. 

Human life can not be separated with the use of BPA. However, BPA is the substance to cause adverse effects on human health. 
BPA is an endocrine attacker (Endocrine Disruptor) that would interfere with the release of hormones in the human body. BPA has the same activity as estrogen in the human body and can cause disruption to the endocrine system function. 

Exposure to BPA is extensive. Studies in animals have shown exposure to BPA at a high rate and continuously associated with health problems such as:

• low sperm count 

• Diabetes 
• hyperactivity 
• Cancer of the prostate and breast 
• Obesity 
• The loss in the womb 
• The results of early puberty 
• Penggangu that will prevent the release of endocrine hormones in the body 
• Interference with the immune system 

European Union (EU) has announced a ban on baby bottles containing BPA in 2010. Germany, France, Denmark, Canada, New York, Australia and New Zealand has taken action to ban BPA baby products on products such as toys and milk bottles on precautionary measures (precautionary measures) in addition to a voluntary recall by the manufacturer. Canada has declared BPA a toxic substance. 

In March 2011, the Ministry of Health Malaysia will ban the sale of polycarbonate baby bottles that use BPA. This is to protect high-risk group of infants and children aged 0-3 years in the future. 

Given industry for a year until March 1, 2012 to spend progressively existing products. Within this year, the industry can prepare for the right product does not contain BPA. 

Wednesday, February 15, 2012


# Did you know that weight can increase a child of about two to three pounds a year, while the height is generally found to increase six to eight centimeters a year. 

# When the child reaches the age of five years, 35 percent of their weight consists of muscle. 

# The child should have the entire set of baby teeth by the age of two and a half years. Of teeth helps the jaw and allow children to eat a variety of foods. After six years of age, children will have a set of permanent teeth. 

# Six first year of life children are the most sensitive because it involves the formation and maturing of nerves. Billions of nervous system in the brain is formed and will provide new sensory experience. So, do not be surprised if the brain size of children will grow as big as adult brain size at the age of 10 years. 

# When the bone grows, the child will be higher. It is important to make the shape look more mature when they enter adult 

# System started the defense of children mature and function at different growth stages. Bodies of children susceptible to viruses, bacteria and parasites. Therefore, efficient immune system to identify, attack and destroy foreign objects. 

# Phase growth is a very important because when the child begins to master gross motor skills and fine motor to adapt. This allows them to move in an orderly, more alert and able to perform more complex tasks such as dancing and playing football. In addition, it also affects the capacity of the child for writing, drawing and coloring in their intellectual development. 

# Children are active and intelligent are more likely to dominate the social interaction skills that can improve their confidence. 

Monday, February 13, 2012

Siti Nurhaliza With M16

I want to share the latest of Siti Nurhaliza Photo...

Sooooo Cuteeee....


Parenting is a juggle between risk and benefit: minimizing danger without removing all experiences and opportunities. Taking a vacation is no exception: you don’t want to put the kids at risk, but you don’t want them to miss the thrill of getting away either. 
With a little planning, travelling with kids is easy and fun, and most risks can be reduced to just about zero. How much planning you have to do depends on where are you going, how you are getting there, what you plan on doing, your kids' ages, and any special needs they may have.  

Start with a checklist

Depending on your family’s circumstances, making a pre-travel checklist may seem a bit much. But using a checklist puts you in good company: along with engineers, pilots, and military commanders, surgeons use them. They all do so because making a mistake can be catastrophic with no opportunity for a ‘do-over’. With travel, it may not be life or death, but do you really want to miss your flight because you forgot your child’s passport? Or get ill because you didn’t get the recommended vaccinations for a country you are visiting? 
Use these pages to figure out what applies to your family travel plans and create the checklist from the relevant information. 

Find out about your destination

Consult your government’s travel advisory website for up-to-date travel safety and security information and other advice you may not have thought of. For example, if you are travelling with your child but not your spouse or ex-spouse, you might want to complete a travel consent form so no-one thinks you are kidnapping your own child!

Hot climes

If you are going to somewhere hot, you should be thinking about the sun. What is the right kind of sunscreen for your child and how often should you apply it? You need to think about how to avoidsunburn and what to do if your child gets it.  Avoiding sunburn is also your child’s responsibility. They can learn all about it on the sun safety for kids page. 
Even when you are covered up, the sun – and heat – can cause other issues. To protect yourself and your family, learn the signs of heat stroke and heat exhaustion. And don’t forget about beingsafe in the water as you cool off and have fun.

Cold climes

If you are headed for a winter destination, you should think about all the extra clothing you should pack to be properly dressed for the cold. You should also know the signs of common cold weather injuries and how to avoid them. Winter destinations usually mean being on the slopes, on the ice, or in the wilderness. Here are some tips about staying safe while having fun doing your winter activities.

Vaccinations and infectious diseases

Depending on where you are going, you and your children may need vaccinations in addition to the shots your child should already get at home.  To find out if this is necessary, and to see if there are other health precautions you should take on your holiday, visit your government’s foreign travel health website.
If your destination is out of the ordinary or perhaps on the wild side, you may also wish to visit a travel medicine clinic. There, you can get medical advice, health insurance, and any neccessary vaccinations. There is also a wealth of books offering great advice on taking children to both near and far-flung places.
You should also remember that when you return home, you are not necessarily out of the woods. If you or your child get a fever days or even weeks after your vacation, tell your doctor about your travels: there is a possibility you might have brought a bug back with you. 

Pack a first-aid kit for common ailments

Although at most destinations you will be able to buy pain relievers and medicines for diarrhea, it's a good idea to bring these things anyway. Put together a small first aid kit​ with these items and any other medication your family needs. Remember to bring the paper presecription with you as well. 

Keep your kids happy and safe in transit

Depending on the length of your journey, you may want to preemptively deal with boredom and bad behaviour by bringing lots of games and toys to keep kids occupied during the trip. 

Travelling by air

Dr Pat has great advice about travelling with children on airplanes – even if the kids aren’t yours. And in this new world of security and its intrusions, the good doctor also has some suggestions about how to explain measure such as ‘pat-downs’ and body scanners.

Travelling by car

Most kids and parents are more familiar with car travel. At this point, everyone should know that kids big and small need to be in a car or booster seat. If you are renting a car, make sure you can rent a child safety seat as well.
If your kids are prone to car sickness, they can read all about it on our Just for Kids motion sickness page. There, they can learn tips on how to avoid getting sick and giggle at the word "barf," which features prominently on the page. 

Keep food safety in mind

Food poisoning is a great way to ruin a vacation. Find out how to protect your family from food-borne illness

Travel advice for kids with special needs  

A health condition shouldn't prevent your family from having a great time on vacation. For advice on some specific conditions:

Tailor your activities to your kids' age and abilities

Depending on how old your kids are, their level of maturity, and their interests, you may wish to adjust your plans to suit. You know your kids best. Some general advice:
  • Make sure they stay active.
  • Let them know what the rules are.
  • Plan for rest breaks and a reasonable pace, given their ages and abilities.
  • Make sure they are supervised as necessary.

Have fun!

Wherever you go and whatever you do, a vacation is a special time when you and your family can enjoy each other's company in a new and different setting. Make the most of it. Bon voyage!

Diets high in processed foods at the age of three years is associated with lower IQ at age eight and a half years.

Diet high in fat, sugar and processed foods lowers the IQ of children, formula one study. The report said eating habits at the age of three years form the performance of the brain when it becomes old. Diet is a lot of food has been processed at the age of three years directly associated with a lower IQ at age eight and a half years, according to a Bristol-based study of thousands of children British children. The Avon longitudinal Study of Parents and Children has made ​​observations on health and long-term well-being of about 14,000 children. food especially rich in vitamins and nutrients have helped improve the performance of the brain when the child grows, the real report of the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health . The researchers said the diet of small children may alter levels of IQ in later childhood, even eating habits improved with age. "This suggests that any impact of cognitive / behavior related to eating habits in early childhood may persist up to the age of children, although there are subsequent changes in food intake, "the real writing. During the study, parents answered questionnaires detailing the types and frequency of meals and drinks provided to children their children when they were three, four, seven and eight and a half years. Each increase of one point in the study of dietary pattern scores (a record of processed fat intake) is associated with a 1.67 point decline in IQ. brain grows most rapidly at the first three years of life. "It is possible that good nutrition during this period may encourage optimal brain growth," added the report.director of research The School Food Trust, Michael Nelson, said: "With about 23 percent of children who start school overweight or obese, it is very clear that healthy choices in their early development is to their benefit, not only to maintain a healthy weight as they grow up, but as the evidence suggests, it is also to enhance their ability to achieve good results at school . "These findings also demonstrate the importance of helping all those involved with early childhood development for information and advice they need on good nutrition." The definition of processed food: food that has been specially treated (eg, drying, freezing, canning) to make it last longer, improve appearance or to make it easier to use.

Babies fed solid foods before 4 months at risk of obesity

Babies fed solid foods before 4 months at risk of OBESITY

formula-fed babies who start eating solid foods before they reach the age of 4 months is likely to be obese than those started later, the results of a study. This finding supports guidelines that say parents waiting their babies up should be between the ages of 4 to 6 months to start giving them solid food, said Dr. Susanna Huh, one of the main researchers from Children's Hospital Boston. "Complying with these guidelines can reduce the risk of childhood obesity," he said. Previous studies have shown either the opposite result when the baby starts eating solid foods associated with the opportunity to become obese when she grew older. This is especially for babies fed on formula milk, the transition to solid food could mean a significant increase in the number of calories you take them. In this study, Huh and colleagues observed the 850 infants and their parents for 3 years. When babies aged 6 months, the researchers asked parents whether they had been breastfed - and if so, for how long - and when they start giving their babies solid foods, like cereals, fruits and dairy products. When the baby is 3 years old, the researchers said their height and weight to determine which children are obese, defined as being among the top 5 percent of ideal body weight (BMI) for age and gender. For infants be exclusively breastfed for at least four months, before they start eating solid food, do not show them to be obese age 3 years. Irrespective of when they start eating solid food, baby milk mothers in the study only probable one of the 14 only to be obese as children pre-school. But the discovery, which was published in the journal Pediatrics , showed differences in babies fed milk formula starting from the very beginning, or who stop breastfeeding before the age of 4 months. these babies have the possibility of one of four being obese at age 3 years if they are eating solid foods before age 4 months. If waiting their parents until 4 or 5 months, possibly into one of 20 only. Likelihood of being obese increased again if babies do not start eating solid foods until they are at least 6 months, but only very few of these infants to researchers to make a clear decision about the risk to wait longer to give baby solid food. Throughout the world, doctors have been promoting the importance of breastfeeding in the first 4 to 6 month baby. However, in the U.S. about half of all babies were breast fed less than 4 months, or not breastfed at all, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . Breast milk is in itself reduce baby's risk of being obese.For babies who grew up with formula milk, it is important for parents to wait until the baby was at least four months before feeding them solid food, the researchers said. "While parents may have difficulty determining the correct amount to to feed a baby who is breast fed, it may also 'how babies eat and learn to eat affects their risk of obesity,' "said Huh. Dr. David McCormick, a pediatrician at The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, said the most common problem he sees is parents adding cereal to formula milk without thinking about the extra calories that they give to their babies. "I think it is What many people do without realizing it, think the baby will become sick or grow faster, "said McCormick, who was not involved in the study. "That's how (adults) become overweight," he said. "They eat less than they should every day." The study showed that talking with parents about when to add solid food for a baby's diet is something that pediatricians should do on a regular basis, McCormick said. Given solids too early, either in combination with formula or separate, "is like preparing your child for obesity." Again, he said, "We know from other studies that if you're overweight or obese at age 3 years, you are likely to remain obese. "